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Naming organic compounds

Asked by ron | Nov 4, 2002 | AS Level > Chemistry > Homework
ron
ron asks:

I 'm having trouble naming organic compounds.

A. CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH2

B. CH3CH2CH2CH=CHCH3

C. CH3CH=CHCH2CH2CH3

D.CH3CH2CHO

E. CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH(C2HH)C2H5

F. CH3CH2CH2COOH

G. CH3CH2CH2CHO

H. CH3CH2COCH2CH3

I. CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH2COOH

J. CH3(CH2)2O- NA+

K. CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH(CH3)2

etutor answers:
The principle is to name them from the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms. 1 = meth, 2 = eth, 3 = prop, 4 = but, 5 = pent and so on.
Important functional groups then come at the end of the name eg. ol for alcohol, ene for alkenes.
Others go in front eg. methyl, chloro

A. CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH2
4 carbons in a chain with a methyl group attached to the 2nd carbon.
2-methylbutane
B. CH3CH2CH2CH=CHCH3
6 C with double bond joining 2nd & 3rd. (Number fronm the end to give the lowest number) hex-2-ene
C. CH3CH=CHCH2CH2CH3
Same as B reversed
D.CH3CH2CHO
3 C with aldehyde group propanal
E. CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH(C2HH)C2H5
Assuming C2HH is C2H5 we have a 6 C chain with ethyl on 2nd and methyl on 4th (alphabetical) 2-ethyl-4-methylhextane
F. CH3CH2CH2COO
With another H on the end you have a 4 C chain with a carboxylic acid group.
butanoic acid
G. CH3CH2CH2CHO
4 C with aldehyde. Butanal
H. CH3CH2COCH2CH3
5 C with ketone on 3rd. Pentan-3-one
I. CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH2COOH
5 C chain with acid group and methyl on 3rd C. 3-methylpentanoic acid
J. CH3(CH2)2O- NA+
3 C chain with ethoxide group. sodium propoxide
K. CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH(CH3)2
5 C chain with methyls on No2 and No4. 2:4-dimethylpentane

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