Health and Social Care Student Answers
Adolescents are one of the most invisible populations affected by HIV disease in the U.S.
The difficulty categorizing adolescents
The lack of access of many teenagers to medical services
The young people most likely to become HIV-infected are often those who are the most disenfranchised are but a few reasons.
As many as 25% of the estimated 40,000 new HIV infections in the U.S. each year occur in 13- to 21-year-olds. Current estimates are that as many as 50% of infections worldwide occur in those between the ages of 15 and 24. At least one teenager in the U.S. is infected with HIV each hour.
Youth of color, young gay and bisexual males, and homeless or runaway youth are at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Recent years also have brought a dramatic increase in HIV among young women, particularly young women of color. Between 1988 and 1993, HIV is estimated to have increased 36% among women 18 to 22. Among black women 18 to 27, the increase is estimated to be 60% for the same time period.
Many adolescents with HIV are unaware of their infection because they have not been tested for it.
Many who do test positive do not follow up for medical care due to lack of money, insurance, or access to appropriate care, or because of denial or mistrust of the medical system.
Adolescents frequently lack resources to pay for their own medical care most notably insurance, which severely limits their access to many types of care. Uninsured adolescents in some areas are left with the option of public clinics -- not always youth-friendly environments in the best of circumstances -- and in other areas may have no access to any health services. In some places, adolescents may be unable by law to consent to medical services on their own.
Many HIV-positive adolescents experience denial about their HIV disease, sometimes as a coping mechanism.
Overwhelmed with the demands of school, work, chaotic home lives, depression, substance use, or homelessness, young people may decide that they cannot focus on their HIV disease until some point in the future (e.g., when school is over, or after they move away from home, or after they find a home).
Adolescents typically are inexperienced and unfamiliar with the medical system, and often have difficulty navigating the complex systems of care associated with HIV.
In addition to a lack of skills, a significant fear and a mistrust of the medical system prevent many adolescents from seeking care.
Another, increasingly large group of adolescents living with HIV is composed of children who were perinatally infected; as more and more of these children enter adolescence, a host of new concerns present themselves, including adherence and treatment decision-making, which involve unique issues for children who have already been on life-long HIV-suppressive therapy and are now becoming more directly and authoritatively involved in their own care.
The main reasons for not starting therapy included stable health and/or lab work, an unstable living situation, a lack of support, heavy drug use, a fatalistic attitude toward death, mental health issues, a lack of readiness, and simple refusal.
Clearly, once the decision has been made by both the HIV-positive adolescent and the provider to begin therapy, selection of a regimen that will fit as seamlessly as possible into the adolescent's life is of critical importance. Simplicity is key for younger persons; in general, twice-daily regimens are likely to work best.
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In nursing theory, a care value base is an ethical code which governs how carers ought to act in certain situations, to be certain that they are not discriminating, being unkind, or providing poor care for their patients.
The care value base covers five main areas:
Promoting anti-discriminatory practice: Carers have a duty to promote anti discriminatory practice in their professional lives.
Maintaining confidentiality: Clients must know they can trust their carers. Clients may be put at risk and their self esteem may be lowered. Confidential information is shared with others, and there are legal requirements to keep personal records confidential.
Promoting and supporting individuals' rights
Acknowledging individuals' personal beliefs and identities
Promoting effective communication
 Importance of a care value base
The care value base forms part of a code of conduct, or a professional code of ethics, for anyone working in a caring profession.
The care value base is important because towns and cities are becoming more multicultural and ethnically diverse, and there are more people with physical disabilities or learning disabilities in the community. Also, many laws now prohibit discrimination on the grounds of race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability, or anything else.
Any violation of the care value base or code of conduct may result in dismissals, lawsuits, and, in a case of an entire institution acting unethically, enforced closure. The care value base also helps the clients promote their rights by outlining what they expect from health care services.
- protection from harm
- family support
- someone to support you
- peers/ teachers
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From an evolutionary standpoint, it was essential for man to enjoy the processes essential to maintaining health. If we didn't enjoy eating then we are less likely to do it, and therefore may suffer from malnutrition and eventually starvation. The feeling of satisfaction enjoyed after consuming a meal is pleasurable and as human beings we associate the action of eating with this pleasant sensation. If cavemen didn't enjoy eating then they wouldn't do it and we wouldn't be here today!
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I have been looking all over the internet and still haven't found any useful websites to revise for Health and Social Care.
I really need help please as soon as possible.
hi try these:
www.edexcel-international.org/ quals/gcse-voc/ri/websites/ - 42k -
www.ocr.org.uk/.../Data/Publication/ Specimen%20Assessment%20Materials/cquartetOCRTempFilewDI8Dn94RM.pdf -
www.heinemann.co.uk/hotlinks/ book.aspx?subjectid=668&id=1237 - 6k -
www.schoolsnetwork.org.uk/Article.aspa?PageId=216767 - 44k -
hope it helps................
Can anyone help me out plz? i was asked to show a basic understanding of the concepts and models of health and well being from two different perspectives, including the effects of ill health and how they relate to service users, including the implications of government initiative.or if anyone know any websites that relate to this question.