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2nd draft of Advantages and disadvantages of bacteria essay

In general, this essay is much better now. It could still do with a little more detail in some places, as indicated in red throughout the essay.

Note to marker:

Before you mark this. I tried to find examples of bacteria as you stated I should do in your first draft comments, but the source I got this information from did not state this. I have marked in blue where the examples are needed, please could you kindly suggest an example. Thankyou very much.

The advantages and disadvantages of bacteria

Bacteria can be useful in genetic engineering, other biotechnological applications, medical technology and the food industry etc) and can be harmful (food spoilage, tooth decay and disease etc). However bacteria can also be harmfull, as they can cause tooth decay, disease ( some being fatal) and food decay. This is repetetive.

The advantages of bacteria for genetic Engineering are firstly economic- they contain a valuable source of enyzmes Bacteria produce more enzyme molecules in relation to their mass than most other organisms. The product yield can be increased by means of strain selection, mutation and optimisation of growth conditions. They are easy to manipulate genetically and can be subjected to gene transfer techniques. Secondly there is an environmental/economic advantage of bacteria- they can occupy a great variety of habitats and extremes of conditions, so their enzymes function in an enourmous range of PH and temperature. ("A New Introduction to Biology") WHY is this an advantage?

Ethically the use of bacteria in the cloning of animals is controversial. At the Roslin Institute in Scotland, scientists successfully cloned an exact copy of a sheep, named 'Dolly'. This was the first successful cloning of an animal and most likely the first occurrence of two organisms being genetically identical. ecently the sheep's health however has deteriorated detrimentally. Many people especially on the grounds of religion think it is immoral to "play God" by the use of modified bacteria. Dolly the sheep did not have any bacterial involvement. This sort of animal cloning involves the extraction of a nucleus from a cell of an animal and implanting the nucleus into a fertilised egg of the same type of animal – bacteria are not used.

Environmentally the bacteria used in genetic engineering chosen do not produce toxins or offensive odours and are non-pathogenic. Bacteria e.g. Burkholderia cepacia be of great benefit to the environment, as they may be used in the future to break up oil slicks in a technique known as bioremediation. Bacteria can also be used for biological pest control - some bacterium are toxic to a particular pest species e.g. Bacillus thuringiensis will kill the caterpillars of some insect pests

In biotechnological applications, bacteria are cultured usually by batch-fermentation define this on a large scale to produce chemical products such as vitamins and enzymes in industrial quantities. (The Oxford Interactive Encyclopedia). The advantages of using bacteria in biotechnological processes are that large scale fermentation, using both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be carried out in large bioreactors/fermentors.
Enzymes are usually produced by batch fermentation and bacteria are used. Bacteria are used because they can reproduce themseolves very quickly. In fermentation the protease enzyme etc. This last sentence (which is not actually a full sentence) does not make sense.

The disadvantages of using bacteria in biotechnological processes, are that the bacteriophages define ‘bacteriophage’ are a serious problem if they infect the contents of an industrial fermentor. Bacteria are expensive to purify and often unstable in the purified state.

(The Oxford Interactive Encyclopedia)

The bacterium Streptococcus converts sugar to lactic acid and slowly etch away the enamel on teeth cause tooth decay However Bacteria can be genetically modified and bacteria may banish tooth decay. According to dental researcher Jeffrey Hillman at the University of Florida in Gainesville a mouthful of genetically modified bacteria could keep tooth decay away for life. The scheme involves replacing your mouth's natural cavity-causing bacteria with GM bacteria designed to prevent tooth decay. Do you know HOW these GM bacteria prevent tooth decay?

(http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99991941)

The technicalogical applications of bacteria are advantageous. The enzymes contained in different bacteria can be used in the dairy industry- extracellular lipase is used to ripen blue chesses from mould e.g Penicillum roguefortii.The production of cheese by separating milk into curd and whey may be achieved by the addition to the milk of the enzyme rennet or by the addition of a bacterial culture. Also In the ripening process, micro-organisms, most commonly lactic-acid-producing bacteria, act on the cheese to produce the desired body and flavour. (The Oxford Interactive Encyclopedia)

Bacteria have a high growth rate and so bacteria can be used to help farmers save crops as they are used for genetic engineering; for example, bacteria can be used to insert genes for disease or herbicide resistance into plants. You could outline the process involved These are also used in biological pest control and are also necessary for the breakdown of sewage.

(http://www.biology-online.org/2/13_genetic_engineering.htm).

There are many types of bacteria that cause spoilage and they can be divided into: spore-forming and nonspore-forming. This can lead to food poisoning - an illness that you may get after eating food contaminated by certain bacteria For instance Botulism is an often fatal disease that results from eating improperly canned foods( spoiled canned food) , improperly processed, low-acid foods such as green beans, mush-rooms, spinach, olives and beef or fish contaminated with toxins released by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum.

(http://is6.pacific.net.hk/~ppleung/Chem/food%20poisoning.htm)

Diseases range from the trivial to the life threatening because they are caused by a range of pathogenic organisms and are transmitted from person to person in a wide variety of ways.

Bacteria such as Salmonella are well known disease-causing agents. They give rise to a range of diseases from common complaints such as tonsilitus to much rarer and frequently lethal conditions such as tetanus. Malaria is caused by Plasmodium and causes "Flu-like" symptoms followed by invasion of liver and red blood cells. It is spread by female anopheles mosquito is the vector transmitting Plasmodium betwen people.

The uses of bacteria in medical technology are advantageous. Bacteria can be used to make antibiotics to cure diseases. One example is the new anthrax killer described in the Aug. 22 issue of Nature. Fischetti and his colleagues took their cue from a type of virus called a bacteriophage that preys on bacteria, replicating inside them. When it needs to escape, the phage uses an enzyme called a lysin to burst the bacteria's cell membrane, popping it like a balloon stuck with a pin. Phages use their lysin to escape, but lysin will also burst bacterial membranes if applied from the outside. This was tested on mice and it killed the anthrax. This is the use of a virus rather than a bacterium, then.

The enzymes in the bacteria are highly sensitive to changes in the physical and chemical environment surrounding them- environmental disadvantage. They may be denatured by even a small temperature rise and change in pH. This seems to contradict what you said in your second paragraph. I know that then you were referring to bacteria in general and here you mean any one type, but this needs to be made clear.This means that the conditions in which they work must be stringently controlled. In particular the enzyme-substrate mixture must not be contaminated with other substances that might affect the reaction so the equipment used must be scrupulously clean- this is time consuming, so an economic disadvantage.

In conclusion it seems that most bacteria are harmful to humans. However some bacteria are beneficial to us and without them we would suffer tooth decay etc. It seems that we need bacteria in order to cure harmful diseases as well as to speed up industrial processes and improve our environment. There are ethical issues involved when we talk about using them in genetic engineering. However these are from a minority and social issues like curing humans from fatal diseases should take priority.

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The effect of ethanol on beetroot

This is a very good piece of work, though a bit over-long! One or two issues to look at. You never really make it clear that the actual effect of ethanol on the lipid part of the membrane is to dissolve it. I'm sure you know, and you do hint at it at various places, but make it obvious. A lot of the scientific information, while correct, is irrelevant to THIS EXPERIMENT. Things like osmosis, active transport, phagocytosis etc are not involved in this experiment. An understanding of the chemical structure of the pigments in beetroot is not necessary either for designing the experiment nor for analysing the results, etc. You won't LOSE marks for this, its just that this extra information might raise doubts as to whether you can distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. Remember you are not writing an essay on cell membranes and beetroot! I don't really agree with your conclusion from your preliminary work. You say the effect happens between 0% and 25%, but the leakage of pignment seems to continue to increase at 50% ethanol.

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Business Studies AVCE Unit 1: Business at Work

1.0 Introduction • Methodology 1.1 Brief History – Tesco PLC 1.2 The Objectives and Strategies of Tesco • Tesco’s main objectives • Tesco’s employee objectives • Tesco’s objectives towards their customers 1.3 Types of Businesses 1.4 Measuring Success 1.5 Organisational Functions 1.6 Organisational Structures 1.7 Communication 1.8 Production and Quality Assurance

Appendix Bibliography Business at Work 1.0 Introduction I am required to fulfil tasks to do with the business world, I have been asked to work on information provided by a business preferred by me and gather that information myself. My task also involves finding out objectives, structures and cultures and how they influence the way businesses work, and how they interrelate and operate to allow good services and products for the welfare of the economy. This coursework will also comprise information regarding the variety of processes by which products and services are created and the way businesses try to assure the quality of their products or services, and the motive for such a strategy.

NB: My comments are in italics

The above intro is somewhat disjointed and is not grammatically correct – look at it again – try asking someone else to read it through for you – I would put something like this: My task is to look at what influences there are on the way businesses operate. To be able to do this effectively I need to look at the businesses: objectives, structures, how they interrelate, the external and internal constraints on them etc, etc, - this is a flavour of how it should be written – REMEMBER that a first paragraph is VERY important as it sets the scene for the rest of the work

Methodology In order to fulfil my task, I will be carrying out both Primary Research and Secondary Research. Primary – you do not need capital letters here - research consists of research that I have done myself, like questionnaires, surveys, looking through leaflets etc- again this is rather clumsily put what you mean is: primary research is data that does not already exist it is sometimes called field research here are some examples:…….. Secondary research consists mostly of research that people have already done, e.g., the use of the internet, I will be using many websites on the internet to research for my work, it is a good source of information as it has a worldwide access, and I am sure that I will be able to find a lot of information to do with my chosen business on the internet. In secondary research, I will also be researching through books from libraries. My research would not be depending much on Primary Research.

Brief History 1.1 Tesco PLC Tesco was founded in 1924 by Sir Jack Cohen, who after leaving the army service in the First World War started selling groceries in London’s East End Markets in 1919. The name ‘Tesco’ was derived from the names of Sir Jack Cohen and T.E. Stockwell, a partner in the firm of tea suppliers, where the first three letters are from the initials of T.E. Stockwell and the last two from the name Cohen where the first two letters are adapted.

In 1947 Tesco Stores LTD was floated on the stock exchange, with a share price of 25p, and Tesco stores started breaching here and there and by the early 1960’s, Tesco had become a recognizable name. They started retailing fresh food, clothing, household goods as well as groceries. The Tesco store which opened in Leicester in 1961 had covered a space of 16,500 square metres and was entered in the Guinness book of World Records as the largest store in Europe.

Instead of opening its own new stores, Tesco bought existing chains of stores and in 1960, it had taken over a total of 212 stores in Northern England and added another 144 in 1964-1965.

Tesco introduced the concept of Superstores in 1967 when a 90,000 square feet store was opened in Wiltshire, the idea was to open a large unit on the outskirts of a town/city, and it was deliberated to provide ease for customers who drove there or used public transport. Although the superstore was made accessible in 1967, the term ‘superstore’ wasn’t utilised until Tesco opened its store in Crawley, West Sussex in 1968. Now Tesco has opened over 979 stores worldwide having over 307,000 employees. It was only in the 1990’s that Tesco decided to Expand outside of the UK and opened a Tesco in Hungary, followed by Slovakia, Poland, The Republic of Ireland and The Czech Republic. Presently, there are Tesco Stores in over 10 countries.

At the moment Tesco is doing very well considering its share price of 242.75p. Its LSE symbol is TSCO. Where did you get this information from? You need to acknowledge the source – this is good but in the context of this piece of work is irrelevant – the person who marks this piece of work will not be interested in the history of Tescos!

1.2 The Objectives and Strategies of TESCO PLC Tesco observes – change this word it is not used in the correct context - its potential through its business objectives; it reviews its contemporary – what exactly do you mean by this? position, by comparing it to the position set by its business objectives. Tesco has categorized – why are you using the American spelling? It should be ‘categorised’ its objectives according to its services, e.g. Objectives – you do not need a capital letter here for employees, objectives for its customers, objectives for the business as a whole. – you need to explain EXACTLY what an objective is – you MUST treat the person who marks this work as a complete idiot who knows nothing abut business at all!

Tesco’s main Business objectives:

• To be a Growth business: the more they grow the better their chances of being noticed by the market, resulting in an increase of market share. • To be the business people value more than others: the more Tesco is valued, the higher their turnout of customers – this does not make sense, which means an increase in sales, an increase in the market share. • To be a Global Retailer – explain exactly what this means : Increasing the retail globally, means capturing the market globally. • To be as strong in non-food, as it is in food: the more varied the products will be, the higher the chances of having better turnover, because you will be giving the customers a better choice. – try and use the correct business terminology – you should be referring to enlarging their product portfolio

Tesco’s Employee Objectives:

• All retailers, there’s one team ????……The Tesco Team: this means better relations and work environment for its employees; it also builds up self-esteem in the workers. – this does not make sense • To have loyal committed staff: having a committed staff means a better service for customers, and if the staff is loyal, this will result in Workers – why have you put a capital letter here? understanding each other better, this is also a good source of motivation. – this does not make sense • Trust and respect each other: Workers enjoy the company of others, helping workers to trust and respect each other will build up team work, and make them understand each other. – not necessarily • Strive to do our very best: working to your best means a better service for your customers, resulting in customers being loyal towards the business. • Give support to each other and praise more than criticise: this is a good way of building up self –esteem, if a worker is praised and encouraged, that worker will feel valued, and will strive to do better. • Ask more than tell and share knowledge so that it can be used: if a knowledge that could be helpful towards the business is known by one person, it can’t be utilised to the business very affectively, however, if it is known between a lots of people, then that knowledge will be very affective. • Enjoy work, celebrate success and learn from experience: this could help to build self-actualisation in workers, to achieve targets means more success.

Tesco’s objectives towards their customers:

• To understand customer better than anyone: understanding their customers will result in the customers being happy, they will become loyal to the business, and take better advantage of it. • Be energetic, be innovative and be first for customers: this will also result in better quality services, and happy customers. • Use our strength to deliver unbeatable values to our customers: by delivering unbeatable values, Tesco is providing a good service for less. • Look after our people, so they can look after our customers: if the staff is well motivated, that means a better service for the customers.

Tesco has made its business objectives very strategically – you need to explain what you mean by ‘strategically’, to keep all sectors of the business intact. Its objectives for employees can prove to be very motivating, and a lot of them would be fulfilling Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Motivation theory. This explains how Self Actualisation, Self-Esteem, Love and Belongings, Safety and Physical survival can be very useful when motivating a work force. – if you are going to use this theory here you need to go into MUCH more depth and explain exactly what you mean by this

1.3 Types of Business In the business environment you will find two sectors, the Public Sector and the Private Sector. The difference between these is that the Public Sector is everything that I ????? run by the government, e.g. NHS, The Army, Police and Fire Brigade. The Private Sector contains businesses that are run by private owners for their own fulfilment. Businesses like the Post Office are partially private and partially in the Public Sector, therefore, part of it is owned by the Government and part of it is owned by a Private owner. Within the Private Sector you will find different types of businesses to suit the kind of service it provides, the number of owners, or even the extent of the business. Here are a few examples of the types of businesses:

Sole Trader/Sole Proprietor: this type of ownership is very common in the private sector. A business which has an ownership of a sole trader is run and owned by just one person. Usually sole traders would work alone, but they might employ people just to give a hand in little things like, shelving etc. Sole traders are very easy to set up, the owner can work single minded towards the business, not having to worry about anyone else’s decision. Plus, as you are your own boss, you decide what happens with the profit. But, there are problems within this kind of ownership, the sole trader will not be able to get much time off, as the business won’t - this is slang terminology and should NEVER be used in any type of business document/work run without him/her. You NEVER begin a sentence with Plus or But – You need to explain other important factors of a sole trader eg: Unlimited liability No need to publish internal financial records No need for any legalities Control Etc

Partnership: a business which has an ownership of a partnership is run by partners. Partnerships can consist from 2 to 50 partners within a business. This is a good way of raising good capital for the business and with more than one people concentrating on the business, more ideas can be put into it. But more partners could also mean that decisions may conflict, plus, if one of the partners dies, then the business suffers as it would have to take care of all the debts etc. – but this business could still trade unlike a sole trader - You need to explain other important factors of a sole trader eg: Unlimited liability No need to publish internal financial records Legalities involved in starting up the business Control Etc

What is a PLC? PLC stands for Public Limited Company; all Public Limited Companies are liable to having PLC at the end of their names. These businesses sell shares to the public in order to get enough capital to be invested into the business, as a result, the shareholders get a dividend from the profit the business makes, to determine how much each shareholder gets, would depend on how many shares that shareholder owns. You need to explain other important factors of a sole trader eg: Limited liability Need to publish internal financial records Need for legalities Control Etc

PLC’s have their Advantages: • They can raise more capital than any other kind of business – this is a sweeping statement and although true you need to explain how • PLC’s have limited Liability, meaning that if the business faces financial difficulties; the owner would only have to pay off what he/she invested. • They are incorporated, which means that if one shareholder dies, the business can still continue as that shareholder would have a separate legal identity from the business, this also means that if someone decides to sue the business, the owner cannot be held personally responsible for whatever reason the business is being sued.

Disadvantages: • Each shareholder would have very little right to direct the company, unless he/she owns a large amount of shares. You would usually need to own 51% of the shares to claim responsibility of ownership and to direct the business. This also means that it is very easy to take over a business by buying enough shares. • There is also a lot of bureaucracy in a PLC, you have to make and publish an annual report each year, including accounts, and financial information, a red tape of accounts, which includes paperwork and forms to complete, which can prove to be a lot of work. • The annual reports are available to see for anyone once published, which means that it is very easy for competitors to see how your business is doing, making competition tough.

1.4 Measuring Success

Have Objectives been met?

At present Tesco has expanded itself as the largest supermarket chain in Britain, and has left rivals running behind. Tesco’s market share increased by 0.3% in the past year to reach a total of 22.8%. Last year Tesco sold over 57,855 tonnes of its own brand bread, 14 million toothbrushes and enough liquid soap to wash 26 million people. But, these figures are only considered in the UK; Tesco has expanded itself into 10 other countries and at present the Chief Executive of Tesco is planning to make a visit to China to open another Tesco chain there. It has more than 307,000 employees worldwide of which 227,000 of those are in the UK, one of the reasons why Tesco is considered one of the biggest Employers in the Private Sector in the UK.

Lately the Chief Executive revealed half year results of last year which soared above the city’s forecast, but still, according to Tesco that was not good enough. Tesco wants to position itself in the wider General retail market. Even though Tesco has around 20% of the grocery market, it still lacks in the non-food market with only 3%. In accordance with these facts, Tesco is failing to meet one of its objectives: To be as successful in non-food as it is in foods. This maybe because, Tesco started of – this does not make sense originally in the grocery market, they have acquired the market quite well, only recently have they decided to go into non-food products, so it will take some time for them to be a bit more successful in the non-food market. Their plan to overcome this situation which has already been launched with results; is to target local high street businesses, and challenge their prices; this is usually referred to as competitive pricing, this is when a business sets its price in accordance with its competitors. So now they will be targeting a much broader market, and increasing the number of competitors. Since Tesco launched this plan, it has taken control of only some of the non-food products in the market, such as Music, Tesco sell more top 100 charts CD’s than anybody else in the UK, capturing just over 16% of the market.

This year the sales of Tesco’s Core UK Market have increased by 7.9%. Tesco has 4 different format stores, to fit the suitability of the customers, these are known as, the normal Superstores, Extras, Metro and Express, Tesco has also lately acquired 1,202 T&S Stores, known as one of the number one convenience retailer stores in the UK, these have been bought in a deal which will see around 450 stores turned into Tesco Express.

Tesco has also had a lot of success in the share market, as shown below, over the past year; it has increased its share market from around 200p to just over 240p and is still increasing. this is good, relevant information BUT you MUST acknowledge where it came from and if it is up to date information

Different ways used to Measure Tesco’s Success. The way we measured Tesco’s success was varied, you can’t - do not use slang terminology just depend on one statistic, measuring success may include the following:

• Growth of Market Share: the more the market is captured, the more influence you have on the product, and the customers. Tesco’s market share is currently 22.8% in the food market. They would now only need around 3% to fulfil a monopoly as a monopoly usually occurs when a company has more than 25% of the market share captured. • Share Prices: the higher the share price, the more valuable that company is, Tesco’s share price is currently around 240p in the London Stock Exchange, which makes it quite valuable. Usually quoted with two prices, the shares can be bought and sold in the London Stock Exchange, a companies Share price can be found from the internet, financial magazines and newspapers, and the General financial News that can be viewed on Television. • Annual Reports: these contain all the red tape of accounts, you may find in here the Profit & Loss accounts, Balance Sheets, Share Prices etc. every company has to produce it’s own Annual Report suggesting it’s progress throughout the year • Buying other Companies: lately there have also been some issues concerning Safeway. Safeway is another superstore like Tesco, but lately its fate was depending on other large superstore chain companies, if Tesco does buy Safeway, it would mean that it expands very quickly around the UK, but it would also mean that the costs and expenses increase to run the firm, but mostly to start it off.

Other Quality Control Methods Tesco could utilise

Tesco already has control of loyalty cards by the name of Tesco Clubcard; this is a rewarding scheme to its customers, where the customers earn points in accordance with the amount of shopping they do from Tesco, the more points they have, the more they are rewarded with vouchers and money-off coupons. Tesco could utilise the use of the Tesco Clubcard in reviewing the customer loyalty, the more this Clubcard will be used by a customer, the better insight Tesco gets into returning customers, and can reward them accordingly, as for the customers that don’t return as often, they could investigate further into why they do not return as much, and accordingly improve their service. They could also do more market surveys and get their customers opinions and suggestions on how to improve the service. They could differentiate their service more, to make it seem more different to the customer than other grocery stores.

1.5 Organisational Functions

Departments that help the business to run

Production: this department takes care of the production of goods; these usually involve factories and workers, and would require some labour work. The Production Dept at then end of the day has to fulfil production targets; it has to complete the work to a standard set by quality control and controls the supply of raw materials and finished goods. The work may be directed by a manager, who tells workers the way the product should be produced. This department would be considered quite relevant to Tesco as Tesco does produce some of its own products, known as Value Products. These would be produced at factories owned by Tesco. But usually Tesco buys its stock from other companies, to sell in its own stores. – you have not got much business theory in here so far this is an ideal opportunity – you could discuss the merits of distribution methods

Finance: This organisational function can sometimes be referred to as the Accounting Function. Finance departments would usually handle all the red tape of accounts, which would include a lot of forms and bureaucratic work. Their responsibilities would involve: Controlling, Recording, Obtaining and analysing the funds of the firm. The proper operation of this department is vital to a firm, as it handles all the accounts which without it, would be almost impossible to run a business. Finance would be quite important to Tesco, as it has to produce annual reports which would include a lot of red tape accounts, such as profit and loss, balance sheets etc. The key elements of finance would be handled by the Head Office, but things such as payrolls and wages etc, would be handled by stores, as this would be more relevant.

Financial Snapshot 22 February 2003 23 February 2002 24 February 2001 Turnover or Gross Income 26,337m GBP 23,653m GBP 20,988m GBP Net Income 946m GBP 830m GBP 722 m GBP Total Assets 16,501m GBP 13,556m GBP 11,732m GBP Shareholder Funds 6,516m GBP 5,530m GBP 4,978m GBP Adjusted EPS 0.1405 GBP 0.1236 GBP 0.1087 GBP Number of Employees 270800 247374 225388

(Fig1)

Fig1 is an example of a brief financial outcome; these are the kind of things that the Finance Department would handle.

Human Resources: The human resources dept handles employment services for the public, these would include, Recruitment, Training, Dismissals, and other things in accordance with the business. Tesco would depend on this department a lot, as it is the biggest employer in the private sector in the UK. It has over 227,000 employees in the UK. The Human Resources Dept would usually be dealt with by the Head Office when providing Guidelines to the Managers, these guidelines would provide the skills needed for the job, and the job description, and from there it would be the manager’s job to find the suitable person for the job. Again an ideal way of getting in more business theory here – discuss the merits of motivational theory in improving workers output; how exactly recruitment take place; the need for training and how this is done eg on/off the job etc

Marketing: The Market Department takes care of the safe sales of stock, it includes things such as Market Research, these would include things such as surveys, questionnaires, comments etc, their general purpose is to find out the latest rends, and in accordance with that, they would release a new product. The Market Dept also handles advertising, it finds ways of selling there products more efficiently, by letting the general public know more about their product. It would also handle the promotion of new products, to get the public to experience the product easily, and finally the branding and packaging of the product, where the design of the final packaging is decided. This Dept would be found to be very relevant to Tesco, as Tesco uses such means as Advertisements through televisions etc, to sell its products, it might even use market research when opening new stores, to find out how the people around will be affected, when releasing a new product, it might do market research to see if t fits in with the latest trends in the Market. – again business theory relating it this could be used eg: 4P’s, above/below promotion, boston matrix, product portfolio etc

Customer Services: The Purpose of the Customer Services Dept is to get the views of the customers; they would usually handle the complaints, the comments, faulty products, receipts, returns and replacements etc. In general, they work on the satisfaction of the customers. Tesco does have a Customer Services Dept, it relies on it quite a bit as it operates with so many different products, customer satisfaction is needed when handling stock like that, complaints help to locate the fault, comments help to improve the service, and returns and replacements insures customer satisfaction. Customer services would be found in all branches of Tesco stores, to make the service more accessible as it can prove very useful for the customers and can assure customer satisfaction very well.

Research & Development: This department mostly handles the Development of new products, this includes research on the product, e.g. will the public be happy with it, how will it help the public etc, then they get into the process of designing and developing, and then finally the production, then the sales would be handed over to the marketing dept. The Research and Development department would be run by the Head Office, they would employ people into researching for the product being released, then for the production they would hand over to the production managers, who would give orders to their workers on how the product should be made according to the guidelines from the head office.

Administration/Clerical: this department insures – ensures! the smooth running of the business and its functions; it tries to make sure that the organisation runs as efficiently as possible by supporting the business on the administrative side promptly and effectively. It makes use of day-to-day timetables and insures the schedule of the organisations routines.

The work involved in this department would mostly be to do with administrative work such as, filing, mailing, answering phone calls, preparing letters etc.

This dept would be more appropriate for smaller offices, instead of depending on the Head Office, as the work of this department concerns minor tasks.

1.6 Organisational Structures There are three types of organisational charts which can be used to define an organisational Structure:

• The Matrix Structure • The Flat Hierarchy Structure • The Tall Hierarchy Structure

These structures are used in accordance with the size, the situation, and on the basis of authority and power.

Organisational Charts These can be helpful in finding the location of certain people, Job – you keep on putting in spurious capital letters! You only need a capital letter after a full stop or for a name or place - or department within the business; they also show the line of communication, e.g. which department or person will answer to whom etc. But they can’t be used on a long-term basis if an organisation is constantly changing.

Chain of Command This is the line of authority that runs from the top of the chart, to the bottom, it shows the links of communication between each sector in the chart. You will find that better educated or/and trained managers have more tiers of chain of commands running to different sectors, showing the sectors that the manager has authority over. The length of the chain will also depend on the size of the organisation, the extent to which the business diversifies, how complex the controls are, how complex the products are and the type of people employed.

Some businesses may reduce the tiers of chain of command for various reasons e.g. reduce wages, improve communications between each sector, which would result in more effective decisions being made with less time used.

Span of control This is the number of sectors within an organisational chart which must report directly to a particular manager. This is where the Flat Hierarchy Structure and the Tall Hierarchy Structure come in.

A flat structure would usually mean less authority to the main Chair person, who would be found at the top of the Structure, and more power to the managers. It would have fewer tiers and managers will have control of a large span of subsidiaries.

`

(Fig2) A flat organisational Structure

as you can see in Fig2, the flat structure is quite simple, it has a limited amount of chain of commands, and a lot more power over authority, the workers underneath the managers cannot answer to the chairperson, the chains of command between them and the managers suggests, that they only have the managers to communicate with, the managers, would answer back to the chairperson, he/she would usually report back on the work being done by the workers. This structure would usually be considered by small firms.

A tall Hierarchy structure would usually give more authority to the Chairperson (or whoever that is considered at the top of the structure), and less power to the managers. It would have more tiers of chain of command, and managers will have less control over the amount of subsidiaries.

The Matrix Structure Some organisations run according to projects that they have been given, e.g. a clothing shop is given a project to make a school uniform. Usually when a firm faces these situations, all the people work together, usually when a person works on a project, that person would have two bosses, The head of the department, and the leader of the project. The matrix structure is a short-term structure, constructed to suit a project that an organisation is working on. Once the project has been finished, the structure will no longer be necessary.

(Fig4) The Matrix Organisational Structure

The Matrix Structure ensures better co-ordination of the projects that the organisation is working on, using the matrix structure also means that if many project teams different to each other are organised, it gives people a chance to use their abilities to the full.

Tesco’s Organisational Structure

(Fig5)

As Tesco is considered a large firm, a suitable Organisational Structure is made to show communication between each sector. As you can see, there is a large amount of tiers of chains of command, showing the amount of communication between each sector. Tesco uses a Tall Hierarchy Structure; this can be used as a long-term chart, to show an internal map of Tesco.

An organisational structure is basically a technique compiled to make a large business more organised. It gives an insight as to who does what, and who has what responsibility and allows multiple functions of the day-to-day business to take place. Tesco’s organisational structure allows vast operations to take place; it specifies each dept’s sector of work, and like all organisational structures, defines the relationship between each of the Dept’s. This sets the culture of the business, it can be happy, sad, strict etc., dependable on the position of each department, and the relationship between them, but to get a good viewpoint of the culture, you have to include many other analytical things as well such as, Tesco’s Policies – no need for policies to have a capital letter for its employees which can be derived from Tesco’s Objectives for its employees, if the employees benefit enough from the objectives, then the employees would be happy, they would be motivated, in return, the management would be happy with the type of work that is being done. You would also have to decide upon the culture by analysing the type of skills that the management is providing. For example, if we follow McGregor’s motivational theory, you will see that he set out two types of managers, who motivate workers in different ways. Theory X Managers believe that workers can only be enthused by money, they are indolent, selfish, and disregard work. They believe that workers need to be forced by Managers. This is more of a strict way of thinking, and would form a strict culture within the business; this could result in employees being unhappy with their managers. But it would also mean that the work taking place is in a disciplined environment, and would insure that work is done to the standard. Theory Y Managers believe that workers needs should be considered as that is a motivational factor. Workers can if motivated, take accountability of doing a job properly, it should be the management’s job to trust workers and encourage them to do their best. This gives employees more rights as management trusts them more, this could prove very motivational because employees will be happy with the management, and will do good work in return, it sets a happy culture, because the relationship between managers and workers is good. It can also be a drawback, because the environment is less disciplined, and as workers are given more rights, work might not be done by them to the standard.

Tesco’s objectives seem to be lenient – this is not the correct word to use in this context to its employees; they enforce encouragement rather than criticism of the work that an employee does. I would classify the managers of Tesco as Theory Y managers.

1.7 Communication

Communication in a business environment can be understood as the exchange of messages from one person to another, as a result of communication, the message has to be understood and result in the action desired. There would usually be feedback, to assure the sender that the message has been understood.

In businesses, you will find that the point of communication is to influence something in the business. The message is often an instruction and the response should be that the job is done. Communication can take place internally (through bosses and employees, subordinates, colleagues) or it can take place externally (Customers, Suppliers, Media, Shareholders)

Communication involves four elements:

• A Sender • A Message • A Medium • A Receiver

These four elements are the principals to getting a message across in a business, resulting in effective communication; you will also find that communication goes in all directions:

Vertical Downward & Upward Communication The Vertical Downward Communication - again no need for capital letters here can be seen as, when a manager or boss gives instructions or words for motivation to an employee, e.g. when someone at the top of the hierarchy communicates with someone below them in the hierarchy.

When we refer to the vertical upward communication, this is when you will find the employees communicating with their managers or bosses, e.g. the employee giving feedback on the instructions that has been given him/her.

Horizontal & Diagonal Communication In the same principal, you will also find a form of communication called the horizontal communication, this is when colleagues on the same level communicate with each other, usually to discuss the work, how it will be done, what they have achieved. Compared to vertical communication, it is far more informal and proves to be very social. It is usually voluntary as well.

There is also horizontal communication, this form of communication describes the discussions between different departments, e.g. a manager from the sales department, discusses the process of a new product with the purchases department.

Formal & Informal Communication Formal communication is when employees communicate through the official channels that have been set by the business, e.g. weekly staff meetings, reports, forms, memos. Tesco would definitely resort to this type f communication a lot, as Tesco is a big company, there would usually be board meetings for the board of directors etc. Formal communication is much more associated with vertical communication; it usually involves a good organised system, which has to work efficiently and quickly.

Informal communication is when people within an organisation communicate but not by using the chain of command or the official channels. You will find this type of communication between employees of the same level, and is very much associated with horizontal and diagonal communication. This type of communication is usually voluntary, and helps to build cooperation between staff. This communication would take place a lot between employees in Tesco.

Centralised & De-centralised Group Network This is where all the communication takes place through the leader. You will find that in the meetings held, the boss would make all the decisions and solve problems, the managers and subordinates would not speak to each other, but speak to the boss. This is more of an autocratic way of communicating, and would prove to be fast in making decisions, but it would also run down the group morale.

In a decentralised group network, you will find that all members of the group participate in giving and receiving information, and take part in the decision making, this type of meeting would usually be held by a democratic leader, and would prove a slow in getting the right decision, but the morale of employees would be high as they are constantly taking part. In Board meetings, Tesco would use this type of communication to get all the directors views.

Open & Restricted Communication This type of communication is when the employees are allowed to communicate with each other frankly, about any kind of problem regardless of their position within the business. The purpose of this type of communication is to boost employee morale, and make them feel that they have a voice within the firm; however, this could cause a problem for the leader, as employees can be as frank as they want to him, and this could make complications for him to make efficient decisions. This type of communication would be used by Tesco in their stores, where the managers speak freely with their employees and get their views and opinions on how the business should be running.

Restricted communication restricts communication about problems if the positions of the employees differ; it gives less say to the employees and gives them less chances of suggesting things.

Verbal Communication Verbal communication is one of the most flexible ways to communicate. It can take place at meetings face-to-face, or over the telephone, they can be formal or informal. In meetings, someone would be required to take minutes to record what had happened in the meeting, this is useful when there are problems such as, someone not hearing anything, or if they received a message that is different to what had originally been said. Another example of verbal communication is interviews, both externally or internally, it would give you feedback immediately but is often false. Nearly every business would need this type of communication; otherwise you can’t expect the business to be operational. Tesco would definitely employ someone to take minutes of their meetings, but would also definitely keep it safe as so no-one finds out what was said in the meeting.

Written Communication Written communication is slower than verbal communication, and you cannot always expect a feedback, but you always have proof that you message has been sent. Within a firm, you will see that a lot of communication takes place through documents called Memorandums or Memo’s. These are short letters which have a set format and are considered very important. Letters are a very popular choice when it comes to written communication. Internally, these letters can give information to employees, e.g. letter of promotion, letter of warning, letter of dismissal etc. they are very popular externally as well (Letters, newsletters, brochures, contracts) Reports are used internally to give feedback on a task that had been given to an employee; the format is like the memo but is more detailed. Tesco always uses this type of communication to insure that customers get the latest news and that employees are aware of the day-to-day operations of the company, so Tesco is very dependant on this communication as well.

Technological Communication Technological communication is quick, recordable, and accurate, but it is expensive. It has revolutionised the way businesses operate and communicate internally and externally. The use of computer means that the receiving and sending of documents can be made quick and accurate. Email is used vastly internally and externally, it is quick and reliable, but also cheaper than sending through paper.

Another example of technological communication is Video Conferencing, where meeting can be held through video phones, this can be very useful when someone is not in the same country or place. Although expensive, it saves the business a lot of money when it comes to air tickets, hotel accommodation etc.

Fax machines are also in wide use, nearly every business you will find will communicate using a Fax machine, it is a useful way of sending letters and documents quickly and accurately, and as it works through the telephone line, it is cheap.

Mobile phones are coming into wide use as well, and make communication very flexible. Making an employee reachable nearly anywhere, and now with internet connections coming into mobile phones, users can access the internet, check their e-mails etc.

Communication is still considered as a two way process, even with all this technology, the sender has to use the correct tone of voice and language, a positive attitude, and the messages must be clear, quick, accurate and relevant.

The use of ICT in Tesco. Tesco has developed into a technological business, the use if ICT within it is vast, the technological forms of communication made available to its customers, can only suggest its improvements in the use if ICT. Here are a few examples of some of the technological processes of Tesco:

• Tesco Club card: Tesco issues a club card to its customers, the card works on level of points, the more points a customer gets, the more special offers that customer receives. Technically this is an excellent way to make a customer come back to shop with Tesco, customers would be wanting to take full advantage of the card, and therefore shop more to get more points. Moving away from a customer’s point of view, Tesco has now got information on its customers. The use of the club card means that Tesco can work out things like, how many customers prefer to shop in Tesco how often do they shop in Tesco, and how much they spend in Tesco. It also gains information such as, customer address, occupation etc, and can fulfil that customers needs accordingly ( see Leaflet in Appendix ) • The Tesco Website: The main source of technological communication that has been made available to its customers is its website. Tesco’s website offers a service as good as its stores, it has made available home deliveries, which make things useful for both the customer and the business, ensuring customer satisfaction, it also provides all the services that can be found on leaflets that you find in stores, such as Tesco Finance, Loans etc (See leaflets in Appendix). The website also gives detailed reports on the company’s progress, and plans, it has made available things like share prices, company history, annual reports online. It has also made it easier for itself and the public when it comes to employment, with information on vacancies, job descriptions, departments etc. • Tesco Internet Service Provider: Recently Tesco has become an ISP, spreading its market over vast areas even more, and making Tesco as a whole more accessible, it supplies CD’s in stores which signup customers to an internet service provided by Tesco, again this is very useful in gaining valuable knowledge about its customers, and ensuring their satisfaction. – you could refer to expanding its product portfolio here

The use of ICT has helped Tesco meet it’s objectives in a lot of ways, the business is growing in all direction, from the involvement in new markets, to gaining information on their customers. The business is valued more, with the use of club cards and their availability to customers, and the offering of special offers. It is becoming stronger in the non-food market, by involving itself in new markets, such as the internet.

Advantages of the use of ICT in Tesco • Business dealings are made more effective, fast and reliable • Information on customers provides information on customer satisfaction • Tesco is made more accessible to customers, with better quality services, and better communication between the customers and Tesco. • Communication internally and externally is made more effective

Disadvantages of the use of ICT in Tesco • The main disadvantage of the use of ICT is that it is expensive, and can take time to set up, while that is being done, a lot of work can be slowed down. • The use of ICT means that the staff will require training, and training again will require expenses • Constant maintenance of the system can sometimes slows things down and proves to be expensive.

1.8 Production and Quality Assurance Production is an integral part of the business environment. Production is a process where raw material is made into goods that will satisfy the customers wants by means of labour. To satisfy the needs of the customers, you would need the country’s resources which can be identified as:

• Land, where all the raw material can be extracted from. • Labour is the workers and their skills needed in the production of the goods. • Capital will include all the things needed for producing the goods, e.g. machinery, tools and equipment. • Enterprise, the business that will provide the final product to the customers.

In Tesco’s case, Tesco would fall mainly into the enterprise section, as Tesco mainly buys its stock from manufacturers, and provides the goods to the customers, but, you would also have to consider Tesco in the other categories as well, as Tesco does produce some of its own products, mostly known as the Value products.

There are three main stages within the process of production:

• Primary: where all the raw materials are collected • Secondary: where all the raw materials are processed into goods • Tertiary: where all the goods are provided to the customer

E.g. Tesco gets its products from a manufacturer, and the manufacturer gets it from the raw material provider:

Primary Secondary Tertiary

To decide on production, the owner or production manager will have to consider a lot of market research, this would include things like the latest trends, likes and dislikes etc. the decision at the end of the day will influence the long-term running of the business, and the day-to-day running of the business.

Other things such as services are planned and constructed within the business. E.g. – you NEVER begin a sentence with eg Tesco Finance was probably an idea to increase the companies market share, so first, a plan would have been made, which showed how the service would work, what it would provide, but before that, the construction of the plan would have gone through a variety of things, such as market research, benefits and drawbacks to the company, its cost etc. then when the plan is approved, it would be constructed, staff would be trained, departments would be opened, to insure the best quality can be provided.

Costs in Production

Costs can be divided into four main categories:

1) Fixed Costs: These are costs that do not change during production even if the level of production is high or low, e.g. Wages and Salaries, Rent, Insurance.

2) Variable Costs: these are changes that occur in accordance with the level of production, e.g. if production is high, the use of raw materials will increase, employment of more workers would mean higher level of wages.

3) Direct Costs: these are costs that can be directly associated with the product that is being produced, for example, the raw material that is used for making the product is a direct cost.

4) Indirect Costs: these costs are not linked directly with the product being produced, e.g. rent, bills, wages, administration of the business. This type of cost would mostly be found in the variable costs category.

Types of Production In the production environment, there are four Basic types of production:

• Job Production: This is when one item is made at a time, in accordance with a customers want, e.g. a tailor suit business, a customer would give measurements, and specifications to how he/she wants their suit made, and the tailor would make it. This would not suit Tesco as it sells ready made products. • Batch Production: where a product is made in batches, a good example is school uniforms, a school orders a sum of school uniforms for students, the manufacturer would then make the school uniforms to that number, and supply it to the school. The work in batch production doesn’t need many skilled workers, so employing people for low wages is easy, although the work is repetitive and workers can become less motivated. Tesco would probably use this type of production, but only in the ordering method, when it would need a certain product, it would ask its supplier to supply it with the amount of products that are needed. • Flow Production: Flow production involves production of the same product in large amounts, at high speeds and in a way to reduce costs. For example, a computer company makes multimedia speakers for computers, or an electronics manufacturing company produces Television sets. In flow production you will find that the unit cost of each product is low, as the quantity of the product being produced is quite large, it needs less skilled workers, and its standard of quality can be maintained. But its repetitiveness can lead to unmotivated workers and can prove costly, when it comes to buying machinery for making the products, plus if machinery breaks down in one sector, then the whole production process has to suffer. Tesco would use this method, as it does make some of its own goods, like its VALUE products. • Just in time Production (JIT): Just in time production is used when stocks of raw materials are kept in low supply, the process’s aim is to get the raw material just in time when the need for them increases in a production. This means that the stock of raw materials is kept low, therefore saving costs until needed. But it also means that because of the tight schedule caused in this, production may not be complete on time if the raw material is not available.

Quality Assurance Quality in business is a way to ensure the condition of a product, and that if it is fit for its purpose; it is a way of making sure that it meets the customer’s requirements. A company which does this would look over to see if those customer requirements are being met with through its quality assurance. Quality Assurance is one aspect of quality control; it should be carried out by all staff to assure the best quality.

A few examples of ensuring that the customers are being provided with the best quality service can be:

• Surveys: to see what the customers expect from the company, and have more opinions from the customer, so that that information can be applied accordingly. • Quality Control: ensuring that all products that are made have no defection of any sort, and have been made to its standard. • Complaint & Comments:

Tesco has many ways of insuring the quality of its services and products.

The training of staff is one of the foundations of quality assurance, a well mannered, and acknowledging staff would definitely give a good reputation to the company. A good way that Tesco trains its staff is that it records any calls that might be made to one of its service; it can then use them for training purposes, and use it as an example. It also sees if any mistakes are made, or if any improvements need to be made to insure the best service.

You will also find that in each branch, Tesco has a quality control inspector, who would go around checking all aspects f goods and services, and see what is on track, what needs to improve, and maybe decide on what is the cause for it. Then he would comment on his findings in meetings that would be held, and make sure that all employees know what the problem is, and what needs sorting. They also run a self-inspection scheme, where employees go around checking for any problems, e.g. trolleys, they would check if all trolleys are perfectly fine, if any defects are found, then the problem would be sorted accordingly.

External Inspection also takes place within the Tesco Branches, e.g. Health & Safety Officers, who would check for any hazards, and see if there are any health hazards that could be posing any sort of danger to customers, if branches pass all test, then a certificate is given to them. Usually it’s a certificate by the name of ISO900, which shows that the place had been inspected, and had passed all aspects of Health & Safety.

Benchmarking is also a good way of making sure that your services meet the standard that is expected at present, Benchmarking involves comparing your goods and services to your competitors, this is a good way of making your services better than your competitors, this would result in customers choosing your business, because of its quality of services.

Conclusion Tesco PLC has managed and developed itself very well, from a little grocery store to one of the biggest superstore chains in the world, its share prices at present show that is still a growing factor in its market, with steps into other markets as well. It has fixed objectives which fit in very well with all aspects of its services, and manages them to its full potential. Like all big companies, Tesco relies on different departments to help it run, which need communication between them all the time, meaning that if one didn’t exist, Tesco would not do so well. Tesco has a tall organisational Structure, due to the number of departments within the business. In order to make sure that these departments work perfectly with each other, Tesco relies heavily on Communication as well, from Written to Verbal, Horizontal to Diagonal, and Formal to Informal. ICT is also used in Mass, and Tesco are regularly looking to employ people who are highly qualified in ICT, as well as in other sectors, making them one of the biggest employers in the Private Sector in the UK. Tesco, as well as producing its own goods, is one of the biggest enterprise businesses in the UK, it buys it stock from many manufacturers who produce the products and supply it to Tesco.

Appendix A spell check was done which showed that no spelling mistakes were detected. A Grammar check was done which showed that no grammatical errors were found. The readability of this document is 12.0 – I do not doubt that you used a grammar check but they are not always true and your work is not grammatically correct – you really need to read your work through before you hand it in – or you could try asking someone else to read it for you

The following resources were used as a means of completing research and basing it on information associated with the coursework.

Overall this is not a bad piece of work – however your grammar and use of capital letters does let it down somewhat – the second half of the work is far better than the first half – make sure you read my comments and abide by them

Bibliography Some resources were collected from Tesco Stores, as in Appendix. The following sites were used on the internet: www.tesco.com www.learn.co.uk www.bized.ac.uk www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize www.google.co.uk www.ft.com The following books were used:

Mastering the Business Environment – Roger Cartwright Scoring Points: How Tesco is winning customer loyalty – Clive Humbly, Terry Hunt, Tim Philips.

Leaflets used for Research can be found in the Appendix.

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